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Chemical Modifications of Ketoprofen (NSAID) in Search of Better Lead Compounds: A Review of Literature From 2004-2016

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Gita Chawla, Chanda Ranjan, Jagdish Kumar and Anees A. Siddiqui   Pages 154 - 177 ( 24 )

Abstract:


Background: Ketoprofen, a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic drug belonging to the propionic acid class was synthesized in 1968. Rapid absorption, simple metabolism, faster blood brain barrier crossing and high antinociceptive activity are the features responsible for its high use. But, free acidic moiety present in its structure is the major factor that declines its popularity by causing various gastric side effects. Many researchers have chemically modified this drug with the aim to discover an improved and safe NSAID candidate or a new drug with altered activity. We thoroughly searched the literature and found that during the period 2004-2016, more than fifty reports are available on chemical modification of ketoprofen. Along with this, many patents involving chemical modification of ketoprofen have also been reported. However, it was very surprising to note that there are only a few review articles available covering only its pharmacological and clinical properties. There is no review article available covering the chemistry part of ketoprofen. This motivated us to compile the information available on ketoprofen and its derivatives. The purpose of this article is to present an updated review about this topic.

Methods: We thoroughly searched the peer reviewed research literature and compiled all such reportings (2004 onwards) for the benefit of researchers who further want to work on ketoprofen or other NSAIDs.

Results: Studies have been conducted to invent strategies to reduce the ulcerogenic properties of ketoprofen and in the course of time, its modified and improved derivatives have been synthesized in search of safer NSAIDs. Along with the aim of reducing the gastric side-effects, researchers have also done chemical modifications in the structure of ketoprofen to improve its solubility, to alter its blood brain-barrierr permeability, to improve its pharmacodynamic profile and to get derivatives possessing antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer and immunomodulatory activities.

Conclusion: The findings of the review confirm that chemical modifications of ketoprofen decrease ulcer producing side effect while maintaining its desirable actions. Some derivatives were also found to possess better activity profile compared to the parent drug.

Keywords:

Anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenases, gastrointestinal-toxicity, immunomodulatory, ketoprofen, NSAIDs.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062

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